Almond (Prunus amygdalus)

Categories
Harvest & Use
Almonds are harvested when the hulls have cracked open; shaking the tree is a sound and oft-practiced method. Traditional practice is to remove the hulls and dry the nuts in the sun until the kernels rattle in the shells. Almond oil is tasty and mono-unsaturated (that's the good kind); it is a favorite of masseuses and masseurs. The nut is high in riboflavin.
Appearance
Similar to the peach: long narrow leaves, early-blossoming pink-white flowers. The tree is fairly upright when young, spreading with age.
Cultivation
Both the bloom (which comes extremely early) and the immature nut are damaged by frost. The nuts require long, warm, dry summers to mature, such as those found in the southwestern states. Two different varieties are required for pollination. Dwarfs do well in containers or as shrubs: minimum height is 8'. Pruning is usually to an open center. Almonds are susceptible to brown rot. Requires 400-700 chill hours.
Comment
The almond is native to Persia and the surrounding region. Unlike other nut trees, it belongs to the rose family, and is closely related to the peach and apricot. Almonds, pistachios, and apples were staples in the diet of Catul Hyk, one of western civilization's first city-states, founded in Anatolia, c. 6500 BCE (Willis: 16-17). Almonds are common in Biblical lore, where they are said to symbolize hope, perhaps because they are among the first trees to blossom in spring. The blossoming rod of Aaron was almond--now said to be the Pope's staff (Friedlander: 153)--as are the blossoms decorating the seven-branched candlesticks of the Tabernacle. The 1769 entry in Thomas Jefferson's Garden Book lays out the first orchard at Monticello: almond, apple, apricot, cherry, fig, nectarine, pear, pomegranate, quince and walnut.
Cultivars of Repute {pollinized by}
1. Nonpareil {2,5}
2. Ne Plus Ultra {1}
3. Texs (Mission) {4,5}
4. Thompson {3}
5. All-in-one {self-fertile}
Peaches are biologically capable of pollinizing almonds, and vice-versa.
General References
[C= cultivation; R = recipes; L = lore; A = all]
* Kourik [C]

Do not bookmark this page! Bookmark the plant index instead.

Apple (Malus pumil)

Categories
Harvest & Use
The cultivated apple comes in thousands of varieties. Yield, storability, and ripening time vary. Some varieties will keep up to April of the following year; late ripeners generally keep the longest. Good storage requires unbruised fruit, and a cool but non-freezing location. Apple petals possess a slightly floral, sour flavor. The Joy of Cooking suggests combining apples with pears and/or with cranberries in cooking; typical proportions in a pie are 1:1 for pears, and 2:1 apples to cranberries. Edible crabapples are very tart; Bryan provides some recipes for crab apples. Tart apples are often recommended for cider (varieties recommended strictly for cider may be too tart for fresh eating); if they are also small and firm they are probably good for baking. Apples are useful in artificially ripening some other fruit: put both fruits in a bag and let sit for a few days (the apple releases ethylene gas which hastens ripening; bananas know this trick too). The robin, jays, orioles, the gray catbird, eastern bluebird, red-eyed vireo, and northern mockingbird nest in apples, preferring crabapples (Ortho: 32-33).
Appearance
Flowers usually come in May, are prolific and usually delicate white-pink. The leaves are soft green. Crabapples usually have pinker, showier flowers and more colorful fruits. Dwarfs can be as small as 4'--apples come in all sizes, varying according to variety and rootstock.
Cultivation
Apple varieties may be either spur- or tip-bearing. Spur-types form their fruit close to the main branches, rather than at the tip of vertical branches. Spur-type varieties are the most commonly espaliered fruit trees. Some apple varieties are self-fruitful, most are not; almost all achieve higher productivity with cross-pollination. The trees need good air circulation among the branches to avoid fungal blights. Pruning is usually to a "central leader". Some varieties tend to bear in alternate years--a habit regular pruning mitigates. In hot summer areas, direct sun will scorch ("sunburn") the fruit; Kourik (144) notes some exceptions: 'Akane', 'Fuji', 'Gala', 'Mutsu'. Apples generally prefer an average summer temperature of 70 F. Apples and pears are susceptible to a wide range of difficult-to-control blights, which are minimized with good hygiene: dispose of fallen fruit, leaves, and branches. Most varieties require 800-1800 chill hours; low-chill varieties include 'Golden Dorsett,' 'Mutsu,' and 'Winter Banana,' (Kourik: 142) as well as most crabs.
Comment
The apple probably couldn't have grown in a Garden of Eden climate: A better candidate for that infamous fruit is the apricot, or perhaps the pomegranate. Malus pumil probably originated in southeast Europe, possibly between the Black and Caspian seas. In myth, apples bestow perpetual youth. Idun, the Norse goddess of poetry, kept a chest of apples which the gods ate in order to stay young. The Welsh word for apple is "aval" and Avalon is an isle whose magical apple trees sustain King Arthur to this day (along with Morgan le Fay and her maidens in black). An interesting conflation of Celtic and Christian traditions holds that Avalon's apples will return to the Garden of Eden, and Arthur to Camelot, at the second coming of Christ. Apple cider originated in France around the end of the 11th century, probably as a substitute for beer during grain shortages--in other words (sniff-sniff), a plebeian drink. How revolting. Legal records from late-thirteenth century England refer to a variety named 'Costard', but England probably couldn't boast orchards of its own until a few centuries later. A grafted descendant of the tree that (allegedly) dropped the apple that inspired Isaac Newton grows in the Royal Botanical Gardens at Kew, England; maybe, if you get ahold of one those apples and throw it down on top of your head, you'll have a great idea. Puritans, or perhaps the French before them, brought Malus pumil to America. Clergyman William Blaxton planted the first American orchard on Boston's Beacon Hill in 1625. By the mid-eighteenth century, Native Americans were cultivating apples around their villages (the native Malus species are inedible), and had developed several new varieties by the nineteenth century. The word "apple," of Germanic origin, appears originally to have referred to any fruit in general, rather than specifically to the apple, thus "golden apple" for apricot and "pineapple" (a fruit visually resembling a pine-cone); this pattern holds in Latin too: "malus" referred to any apple-sized fruit, e.g., Persicum malum, "Persian apple," for peach. (Maybe some linguist could explain that to me.)
Cultivars of Repute [best zones]
Apple varieties which usually won't pollinize another variety include: Belle de Boskoop, Bramley, Gravenstein, Karmine, King, Jonagold, Mutsu, Spigold.
* Akane: The fruit is small and bright red with crisp white flesh ideal for fresh eating, ripening in August-September. A reliable producer, regardless of spring weather. The fruit is resistant to sunburn. May need thinning for maximum fruit size. 'Akane' resists scab, mildew, and fireblight.
* Ashmead's Kernal: Yellow russetted fruit with award-winning flavor said to perfect itself in storage. Ripens in October. The tree is hardy, resists mildew, and is partly self-fruitful. [3-8]
* Braeburn: common in supermarkets. Large, green fruit with red blush, ripens very late; keeps well. Partly self-fruitful. Won't pollinate with Fuji. Developed in New Zealand from 'Granny Smith'.
* Cox Orange Pippin: An award-winning apple for taste that keeps up to 3 months. The fruit is multipurpose. The tree is less ornamental than average, prefers cold winters, and requires pruning. [5-7]
* Fireside: hard to find, with highly rated dessert quality. Ripens late, keeps well. [4-8]
* Florina: a French variety. The tree is productive and scab-resistant. The fruit is large, red, sweet, and keeps well; flavor withstands hot summers better than most. .
* Fuji: red, sweet, and crunchy. It's commercial popularity is increasing. Partly self-fruitful; won't pollinate with Braeburn. Ripens very late, keeps 6 months. The fruit resists sunburn. Requires 100-400 chill hours. [6-8]
* Gala: Partly self-fruitful. Keeps over 3 months. Very intolerant of wet soil. The large fruit resists sunburn, and is common in supermarkets. 500-700 chill hours is the standard recommendation, but as we speak 'Gala' is thriving in areas of coastal California which average 400 chill hours.
* Golden Dorsett: A good choice for zone 9 and possibly zone10 (why anybody in zone 10 would want to grow apples eludes the sober intellect); it requires 100-400 chill hours. The tree is self-fruitful and early-ripening. [8-9]
* Granny Smith: Tart green apples ripen extremely late (mid-October) and require long growing season. Developed in Australia, commercially widespread. 600-700 chill hours. [6-9].
* Gravenstein: very early blooming. The fruit is oblate, medium-large, greenish yellow with red striping; the flesh is sweet and tangy. Widely and highly recommended for cider and baking; good marks for fresh eating too. Keeps less than 2 months. The tree is large, and a poor pollinizer. It is common in California, but probably developed in northern Germany. [5-9]
* Honeycrisp: developed in Minnesota and hardy to zone 3. The fruit is very juicy, sweet and crisp ("honey-crisp" to be precise), with red and yellow skin. Ripens in October, keeps through February. [3-8]
* Hudson's Golden Gem: Large pyriform fruit with russetted skin and nutty flavor; ripens in late October. Keeps well. Resists scab and mildew.
* Jonagold: a child of 'Jonathan' and hence grandchild of 'Spitzenberg'. The skin is yellow with red strips; the flesh is sweet and mild, usually used fresh or baked; 'Jonagold' is common in stores. It ripens in early October and keeps about 3 months. The tree is vigorous and productive but susceptible to mildew and scab. Its pollen is sterile, so it needs a pollinizer but won't return the favor.
* Liberty: The tree is vigorous, productive, and very resistant to all the major apple diseases; blooms early. The fruit is dark red with yellow flesh, good for fresh eating and cooking. Requires crop thinning for best fruit. Ripens September-October. [4-8]
* Lodi: The fruits are light green-yellow with tart, crisp flesh, good for everything but cider. The tree is a very early and heavy bearer, hardy to zone 4. It is self-sterile and prone to fireblight.
* Macoun: small, dark red, aromatic fruit; similar to (and descended from) Macintosh. The literature recommends using the fruit fresh and baked. It keeps less than 3 months. The very hardy, fireblight-resistant tree bears biennially unless pruned. Developed in the early twentieth century. [3-7].
* Mutsu: large yellow, all-purpose fruit with juicy flesh. The tree is productive, vigorous, and large; it resists mildew but not scab; it is a poor pollinizer. The fruit resists sunburn. Ripens in late October. Needs 450-600 chill hours. [4-8]
* Northern Spy: an old and legendary New England variety. The taste is supposed to be unsurpassed. Multipurpose, high in vitamin C. Keeps up to 5 months. Not disease resistant.
* Pink Pearl: texture is crisp, flavor sweet, and the flesh...pink. The flesh is pinkest in cool summers. Very pink blossoms, like a crabapple's. Ripens early, keeps through December. Doesn't tolerate soggy soil; very susceptible to fireblight. See Kourik for more info on this variety. [4-8]
* Spitzenberg: an old, slow-growing variety. The fruit is spicy red, allegedly Thomas Jefferson's favorite (I couldn't find a primary source for this), excellent fresh, not so great baked. The parent of 'Jonathan'. The fruit keeps 6 months and the flavor improves in storage, but the tree tends to bear in alternate years. Ripens in October.
* Sweet Sixteen: extremely hardy, a reliable bearer of medium-large sweet apples ripening in September. Resists scab. [2-7]
* Williams Pride: ripens very early, in August. The fruit is large, red and spicy. Blooms early (between 'Gravenstein' and 'Liberty') and for a long time, making it a good pollinizer. Resistant to scab, fireblight, and powdery mildew.
* Winter Banana: small tree, developed for mild winter areas. The fruit is mild-flavored, yellow with pink blush and crisp flesh. It ripens in October and keeps through January. The tree is self-sterile. 150-500 chill hours. [7-9]
* Crabapples: Dolgo [2-8]; Stine's, Transcendent [3-8]; Evereste (disease resistant); Kerr (large fruit, hardy to -40 F). Crabs are often planted as pollinizers because of their profuse bloom and compact size. The varieties listed here are also highly ornamental. Any species of Malus that bears fruit under 2" wide is considered a crab, and usually will pollinize M. pumil. Ornamental and disease-resistant cultivars of native American crabs include 'Leprechaun' (dwarf), 'Profusion' growing to 25', and 'Adirondack' and 'Centurion' which are tall columnar trees. 'White Cascade' is a disease-resistant, weeping semi-dwarf. 'Copper King' (dwarf) and 'Sugar Time' (bright red, persistent fruit) were bred for fragrant flowers. The flowers of 'Doubloons' (upright form) and 'Coralburst' (spreading) have two-sets of petals (called "double flowers").
* A million others, including "pole" apples which have virtually no side-branches, take up virtually no space, and have virtually no flavor.
General References
[C= cultivation; R = recipes; L = lore; A = all]
* Grigson [R,L]
* Kourik [C, R]; provides a recipe for 'Pink Pearl' apple tart

Do not bookmark this page! Bookmark the plant index instead.

Apricot; Golden Apple (Prunus armeniaca)

Categories
Harvest & Use
The flavor of an apricot suffers when it is picked unripe and stored, and so whenever it is harvested commercially. Ripeness is directly proportional to softness. Light cooking and citrus juice are reputed to enhance the flavor. The fruit can be canned. Some apricots have tasty seeds, similar to the taste of an almond. Like most orange life-forms, apricots are high in vitamin A (from carotene). Apricots ripen all at once--all 70 pounds of them on a mature, standard sized tree--and drop to the ground quickly after ripening.
Appearance
The apricot is an extremely early bloomer, and highly ornamental. The leaves are heart-shaped and new foliage is bronze, turning green as the season progresses. The branches are gnarled, flowers white. Blossoming is usually in early March--at the first sign of warm weather. Apricots may grow up to 25-30 ft tall and wide under favorable conditions; dwarfs are usually under 10'.
Cultivation
Cross-pollination maximizes yield. Apricots abandon dormancy at the drop of a hat, and therefore often go into bloom before the last frost, which is a problem since frost kills the blooms and hence the fruit. They also suffer from cold winter winds, so a sheltered spot such as behind a north wall or evergreen helps them, extending dormancy and blocking wind. The apricot prefers dry spring weather: humidity causes brown rot. They shouldn't be planted where verticulium wilt has been a problem (e.g., in an old strawberry bed). Lawn around the base of the tree fosters peach borer larvae: heavy mulching is supposed to help control that problem. The tree loves nitrogen. The modified central leader or open center are the usual pruning forms, since they improve air circulation. Fruiting occurs on wood up to four years old. Apricots usually require 600-1000 chill hours; 'Goldkist' and to a lesser extent 'Royal' (AKA 'Blenheim') are low-chill varieties.
Comment
Like many fruits, the history of the apricot can be summed up as follows: Asian native, Greek import, Roman cultivar. The apricot was probably the "forbidden fruit" of the Garden of Eden; the apple wasn't adapted to the climate of Biblical lands and whenever "apple" occurs in the Bible it should probably mean apricot. The Romans gave it the botanical name it bears today because Armenia was a renowned source of the fruit. They also called it malum praecocum, meaning "early-ripening apple" (praecocum is the root of "precocious"), which eventually morphed via the Moors into the English "apricot" (Arabic al birquq, "the apricot," to Spanish albaricoque ). The apricot arrived in England during the reign of Henry VII or Henry VIII, depending on which expert is ascendant at the moment. The 1769 entry in Thomas Jefferson's Garden Book describes the membership of the first orchard at Monticello: almond, apple, apricot, cherry, fig, nectarine, pear, pomegranate, quince and walnut.
Cultivars of Repute [best zones, if not standard for species]
* Flavor Delight: an apricotXplum that is 3/4 apricot. 550 chill hours.
* Flora Gold: a dwarf variety. [5-8]
* Goldkist: 300-400 chill hours. [7-9]
* Harcot: disease resistant. [6-8]
* Royal (AKA Blenheim): intense summer heat harms fruit; 400-500 chill hours; a popular choice for fresh eating. [6-8]
* Moongold: hardy and disease-resistant; self-sterile, usually paired with 'Sungold'. [4-9]
* Moorpark: large fruit, pinkish blossoms; semi-dwarf. [5-7]
* Puget Gold: a semi-dwarf that blooms late--thus productive in areas prone to late spring frosts such as the Pacific Northwest--and ripens in August. [6-8]
* Sungold: very hardy and productive; self-sterile, usually paired with 'Moongold'. [4-9]
General References
[C= cultivation; R = recipes; L = lore; A = all]
* Grigson [R,L]

Do not bookmark this page! Bookmark the plant index instead.

Artichoke, Globe (Cynara Scolymus)

Categories
Harvest & Use
Artichokes are the giant flower buds of giant thistles. They are picked before they open: the younger, the tenderer, and when very young virtually the whole bud is edible. The base of the leaves is eaten, as is the heart of the bud. Each mature plant usually produces 10-15 chokes. Miscellaneous bugs (e.g., earwigs) often nestle in the buds; the live bugs can be purged by soaking your head (of artichoke) in icy salt water for 30 minutes. The nectar of the large, shallow flowers is easily accessible, and thus attractive to predatory insects (Kourik). The leaves proper were used as a potherb in antiquity. Artichokes remain productive for about five years.
Appearance
The artichoke is a 4-5' tall, fountain-shaped plant with 4' long gray-green fronds and (if not picked and eaten) lavender flowers which range from 4-6" in diameter. Its width usually equals its height.
Cultivation
The artichoke prefers full sun, except in hot climates. Drought killeth it not, but doth reduceth the harvest. Artichoke suffers in extreme heat (tough buds) or cold (death). Hard frost will kill the tops, but the roots can survive colder temperatures if heavily mulched. Artichoke tolerates salinity and does well in maritime climates. The ideal climate is that of central, coastal California, where 90% of US production takes place. Artichokes respond well to fertilization; nitrogen is always a hit. Commercial growers space 4' apart and replant every few years. Artichoke occasionally suffers from a fungal blight called "botrytis," which causes gray mold on the leaves in hot, moist weather; afflicted plants must be destroyed (burned or hauled to the dump). Slugs and snails can also be a problem. There are some reports that deer ignore the artichoke. Propagation is usually with suckers (+ root portion) in early spring, or by division. If growing from seed, plant 1/4 inch deep and keep temperature above 60 F. Germination is usually in about 12 days; it is normal for about 20% of seedlings to be slow-growing and runty (pull them).
Comment
The artichoke is probably native to North Africa; Egyptians grew it in 600 BCE. "Artichoke" comes from the Arabic name "al kharshof," which was borrowed into Spanish as "alcarchofa." Catherine de' Medici introduced the artichoke to France in the 16th century, and it is in connection with her name that its aphrodesiacal qualities are usually discussed (Root). The artichoke is often confused with the cardoon, to which it is related. Both belong to the sunflower family (the Jerusalem artichoke got its name because the Italian for "sunflower," is "girasole" which sounds like "Jerusalem"). Italian farmers introduced the plant into California in the 1920s.
Cultivars of Repute
These produce edible buds the first year: 'Green Globe', 'Grande Beurre'; 'Imperial Star'. 'Violetto' is hardy in the warm end of zone 6.
General References
[C= cultivation; R = recipes; L = lore; A = all]
* Bryan [A]

Do not bookmark this page! Bookmark the plant index instead.

Asparagus (Asparagus officinalis)

Categories
Harvest & Use
Asparagus need two years of growth before the shoots can be picked. The shoots are usually cut below ground-level in late spring, when they look like, well, like asparagus. One plant produces about 1.5 lbs of spears. Cut all shoots, including those left to flower, down to the ground at the end of the growing season, unless the plant is desired mostly for ornamental purposes. Asparagus is often canned. The seeds can be ground and used as a coffee substitute. The shoots are high in vitamins A and C, and alleged to be diuretic.
Appearance
If you leave asparagus unpicked it quickly becomes a three- to five-foot tall, feathery, decorative fern. The females have red berries, but fewer shoots (which are the part you eat). The flowers are white.
Cultivation
Asparagus need two years of growth before the shoots can be picked, and three years before heavy harvesting. It likes to set deep roots. Refrain from picking past mid-summer, to allow fern-growth. Asparagus tops die back in winter; the yellow tops are generally cut and removed to discourage pests. Asparagus is usually planted one foot apart in rows three feet apart. Crowns are usually planted several inches below the surface: in this method, cover the crown with an inch of soil, and as shoots appear gradually bring up the soil level (naturally, there are experts who object to this method). My experience tends to confirm the theory that shallow planting results in weak and skinny shoots. Soil should be rich in organic matter, nitrogen, and phosphate. Ideal pH is between 6.5 and 7. It tolerates saline very well. Asparagus doesn't compete well with weeds, although its roots grow deep and wide. Average lifespan is ten to fifteen years.
Comment
The origin of asparagus is furiously disputed; eastern and northern Europe are likely candidates. The Romans had begun cultivation of it by Julius Caesar's time. Asparagus is related to the orchid.
Cultivars of Repute
* Jersey Knight: an all-male variety (means more shoots), hardy and disease-resistant.
* Larac: French variety famed for delicate flavor.
* Purple Passion: purple variety, hardy.
General References
[C= cultivation; R = recipes; L = lore; A = all]
* Bryan [A]

Do not bookmark this page! Bookmark the plant index instead.

Autumn Olive (Elaeagnus umbellata)

Categories
Harvest & Use
The fruit is very tart and loaded with vitamin C. Many birds dote on the berries, and the fragrant flowers are popular with bees. The mourning dove and northern mockingbird nest in Elaeagnus species (Ortho: 32-33). Autumn olive was originally employed in the United States to re-vegetate stripped and damaged land, but concerns about its invasiveness have curtailed that use.
Appearance
Maximum height is twenty feet. The quarter-inch red & silver berries ripen in (you guessed it) autumn. The leaves are untoothed, with hoary silver highlights which a dark background such as an evergreen will accentuate. The profuse, small, cream colored flowers appear shortly after the leaves in spring.
Cultivation
Autumn olive tolerates soil pH from 4 to 8, some salinity, and much drought. The shrub grows readily, perhaps too much so....
Comment
Autumn olive was brought to the United Sates in the early nineteenth century, and has naturalized in much of the southeast. Birds like the fruit and hence spread the seeds; its tolerance of poor soil and drought further contribute to a weed-like aspect. The Nature Conservancy and state of Virginia classify autumn olive as an invasive alien species, and want you to shun it (see Web site below). But, the shrub naturalizes primarily in ecologies humans have damaged, such as pastures, strip mines, and roadsides. It's a bit simplistic to blame the decline of native flora on exotic plants, in such cases.
Cultivars of Repute
Redwing, Cardinal (used for poor soils and wildlife shelter).
General References
[C= cultivation; R = recipes; L = lore; A = all]
* Reich [C, L]
+ State of Virginia's factsheet, from the invasive alien plants list: http://www.dcr.virginia.gov/dnh/invinfo.htm

Do not bookmark this page! Bookmark the plant index instead.

Bamboo, Giant (Phyllostachys spp.)

Categories
Harvest & Use
Most species of the genus Phyllostachys produce edible shoots: Peel off the outer layer to expose the tender flesh. Shoots are commonly used in stir-fry, and can also be prepared like corn; they are best when less a foot long, a height they attain rapidly (timber bamboo can do it in a day). Heavy harvesting the first 2-3 years robs the plant of formative strength, as does harvesting all its shoots. Bamboo can serve as a windbreak if it is grown several feet thick (the wind will damage the most exposed canes). A spacing of 6-8' apart produces a grove conducive to the flitting of small birds. Bamboos are used heavily in Asia for construction (even suspension bridges!) and craft purposes: A nice book on the subject is The Book of Bamboo, by David Farrelly.
Appearance
Bamboo is a giant, woody grass. Phyllostachys species range from 20-60' in height.
Cultivation
Bamboo likes full sun in all but the hottest climates, where they require some shade. Phyllostachys species are commonly called "running" bamboo: they tend to invade, especially into loose, rich soil; compacted soil, scarce water, and scarce nitrogen will limit running bamboo's growth somewhat. Planting in an underground container to control running is also common. Running bamboo spreads by underground rhizomes. Pests are insignificant, unless you have a feral panda bear problem in your area. Propagate in early spring, just before growth begins.
Comment
Bamboo originated in Asia. There are several other genera in addition to Phyllostachys, but P. species are the best for eating.
Species of Repute [] = zones, if non-standard
* P. aurea (Golden Bamboo): The 2" canes are golden in sun (greenish in shade) with dense, dark foliage. The canes grow 20'-30' tall. The shoots have good flavor. Easy to grow.
* P. aureosulcata (Yellow Groove): a very ornamental species with yellow striped, occasionally zig-zagging, 1 1/2" canes. It grows up to 25' tall, and is hardy to -20F. [5-9]
* P. dulcis (Sweet Shoot): The sweet shoots are edible fresh. The 2"-3" canes grow 20' to 40' tall. [8-0]
* P. nigra (Black Bamboo): a very ornamental species. The new canes darken to brown or black in a few years; darkness is proportional to exposure to the sun. The mature, 2" canes are hard, thin-walled, and used in furninture in Asia. Average height is 30'.
* P. nuda (Green Bamboo): a hardy, tough species: good choice for a screen. The green canes are 2" in diameter and reach 30' in height. The shoots earn high ratings for flavor. [5-9]
* P. vivax (Timber Bamboo): one of the largest bamboos, reaching up to 60'; canes may achieve a 6" diameter. The leaves are bright green, the canes are light green. The shoots have good flavor.

Do not bookmark this page! Bookmark the plant index instead.

Next Section

Apple Malus pumil Artichoke, Globe Cynara Scolymus Autumn Olive Elaeagnus umbellata